Photographic Optics and Equipments
1. History of B/W Photography: Early experiments and later developments.
(a) Reflection and refraction of light, dispersion of light through a glass prism, lenses, different
kinds of image formation, principal focus and focal length, size of the image, speed and power
of the lens, depth of field, angle of view and perspective.
(b) Defects of images formed by lens: Chromatic and spherical aberration, curvature of field,
distortion and astigmatism, methods of reducing the above defects.
(c) Aperture of diaphragm, its function, f notation, different kinds of aperture and their
construction, dependence of depth of field and focus on distance and f number.
3. Types of camera lenses: Single (meniscus), achromatic, symmetrical and unsymmetrical
lenses, telephoto, zoom, macro, supplimentry and fish-eye lenses.
4. Photographic camera types: Pin-hole, box, folding, large and medium format cameras,
single lens reflex (SLR) and twin lens reflex (TLR), miniature, subminiature and instant camera,
choice of camera and sizes, rising, falling, cross movements and swing back devices.
5. Principal parts of Photographic cameras: (a) Lens (b) Aperture (c) Shutters, various types
and their functions, focal plane shutter and in-between the lens shutter, shutter synchronization,
(d) View-finders and focusing systems: Direct vision and ground glass view finders, frame view
finder, plane mirror and penta-prism view-finder, fresnel prism focusing, split image focusing ,
range finders and range finder focusing , mechanism focusing distance scale.
(e) Film chamber: Film transport mechanism, manual and auto winding, film speed setting
(6) Exposure counter, self-timer, tripod stand, panning tilt head, lens hood, cable release,
extension tubes and bellows, tele converter and changing bag.
(7) Enlarger: Different types, construction, working.
(8) Exposure: Correct exposure and its determination, exposure meters- Types and function,
(9) Colour Filters: Different kinds, Red, yellow, green, neutral density, half filters, filter factor,
(a) Natural source, the Sun, nature and intensity of the sunlight at different times of the
day, different weather conditions.
(b) Artificial light sources: nature, intensity of different types of light sources used in
photography namely; (i) Photo flood lamp, (ii) Spot light, (iii) Halogen lamp, Barn
doors and snoot, lighting stands.
(c) Flash unit: Bulb flash and Electronic flash, main components, electronic flash units,
studio flash, slave unit, multiple flash, computer flash, x-contact, exposure table.
(11) Perspective and composition, rules of composition.
(1) Photographic dark room, layout and equipments.
(2) Photo sensitive materials: Photographic emulsions, structure of B/W film, types of emulsions
and their constituents, grain size and its effects on the image, speed of the film, ASA, DIN and
ISO etc., Latitude and resolution, types of negative films, photographic papers, Bromide and
Chloride papers, different grade and weights, contrast, surfaces and their use, spectral
sensitivity of films and papers.
(a) Developers: Constituents of developers and their functions, kinds of developers for
specific purposes, e.g. universal developers, fine grain developer, contrast developer
and their formula, effect of temperature and time on development.
(c) Fixer: Constituents and function, effect of temperature.
(e) Mechanism of washing, methods of illumination hypo and testing its presence, drying,
dish and tank developments.
(f) Processing of reversal B/W films, method employed, monobath processing.
(4) Printing: Contact printing, projection printing using an enlarger, enlargement on Bromide
paper, selection of papers, technique of enlargement – Burning, dodging, vignetting, flashing,
diffusion or soft focus, distortion creation and correction, making cartoon and multiple
photograph on the same paper, making giant enlargements, glazing and drying.
(5) Trick Photography: Methods, effect box, photomontage, wire screen-star effect, use of
diffraction grating, texture effect, photolith, Bas-relief, solarization and photo grams.
(6) Defects of negatives and prints: Causes of thin and dense negatives, flat or hard prints,
various stains and spots etc. and their removal or prevention.
(7) After treatments of negatives and prints: Intensification, reducing, toning and colouring,
constituents and methods employed in each case, retouching and finishing methods, fill in,
mounting and framing of films.
(8) Portrait Photography: What is portrait, principle of portrait lighting, use of one, two and three
photo flood lamps, use of spot light, use of barn doors and snoot, main light and fill in light,
bounce and reflected light, umbrella lighting, photography of full and ¾ portraits, arrangements
of models, backlighting, control lighting for tones and textures, multiple lighting, profile and
silhouette photograph, lighting interior, low and high key lighting.
(9) Still life, table top photography, methods and enlargements employed.
(10) Photography in available light: Meaning and methods, problems, exposure, movements,
depth of field, selection of film compensating exposure, special techniques of developments.
(12) Photomicrography: Photography using a microscope, essential equipments and methods,
use of polarized light.
(13) Colour Photography: Basic principle, idea of colour, primary and secondary colours, colour
and colour temperature, additive and subtractive colour synthesis, colour films, negative and
reversal structure, colour film types, processing of colour negatives and reversal films, colour
developer its constituents, colour printing dark room and essential equipments, colour printing,
constituents of colour enlarger, methods of colour printing on colour papers using colour
negatives, steps in obtaining colour prints.
(14) Copying equipments, suitable camera and light arrangements, preparation of negative and
(15) Cinematography: History, basic principle and technique, constructional details of a movie
camera, time laps photography, processing techniques and equipments, editing, tilting and
(16) Sound Recording: Sound recording on line film, techniques and methods employed.
(17) Video Photography: Basic principle of a video camera, various line camera, differences
(2) Working with different cameras: Holding camera in hands, film loading, unloading, winding,
large format cameras, rising, falling and cross movements and swing back.
(3) Study of apertures: f-number and their effects, opening and closing.
(4) Study of shutters, focal plane and between the lens shutters, different shutter speeds,
controlling shutter speeds and movements.
(6) Effect on the image due to use of normal, wide angle, telephoto and zoom lenses.
(7) Use of extension wires, self-timer and shutter release.
(8) Determination of exposure, its relationship with shutter speed, aperture number and film
(10) Use of exposure meter and determination of correct exposure.
(13) Study of enlarger, operation of its different parts and examination of easle.
(14) Taking photographs: Outdoor and indoor subjects on films.
(15) Developing and fixing of negatives, washing and drying.
(16) Printing of negatives on different grade of papers.
(18) Examination of effect of different developers and varying exposures.
(19) Making enlargements employing an enlarger.
(20) Techniques of enlargement, use of dodging, burning, flashing, vignetting etc., making
(21) Photographing a subject with different lenses.
(23) Preparing full and ¾ portraits under different lighting conditions e.g. use of one lamp, two
lamp and high front and low front lighting (ghost lighting), its effect.
(24) Photograph, use of bounce and reflected lights.
(25) Obtaining group photograph, arranging groups.
(26) Still-light photograph and table top photography, arrangements of lighting and effects.
(27) Use of colour filters: Its effect on photograph, preparation of lighting and objects.
(29) Colour film processing- Negatives and reversal.
(30) Printing of colour negative on colour paper, use of colour developer and colour
(32) Creation of illusions, view camera, wild life, fashion photography, photojournalism.
(33) Intensification and reduction on films and touring of prints.
(35) Prepare photomicrograph using a micrograph and camera attachments.
(36) Tour to study operations in a c colour laboratory, movie and TV studio to get the first hand
knowledge of their working.